All Poets Table

Edit link Priority Title Image Prefix or Title First Name Middle Name(s) Last Name(s) Suffix Maiden Name Married Name Pseudonym(s) Bardic Name Other Name Gender Sexual Orientation Baptism Year Birth Year Birth Year Approximated Death Year Death Year Approximated Flourished Years Approximated Flourished Years Flourished Dates Description Cause of Death Death Description Birthplace Other Locations Nationality Emigration Emigration Description Transatlantic Formal Education Formal Education Start Age Formal Education End Age Education Types Occupation Industry Laboring-Class Status is Certain Began working at age Disability and Illness Disability and Illness Description Orphaned or Widowed Orphaned or Widowed Description Social Relief Social Relief Description Imprisonment Religion Affiliations Affiliations Description Poetry Collections Periodical Publications Non-poetic Publications Referenced Poem Titles Manuscript Information Dialect Dialect Usage Description References and Sources PoetId Internal Comments
0 - Mirrors Superlist - No Research Necessary Richard Abbot Richard Abbot male 1818 1904 Burton, Westmorland Galgate, Lancaster, Shap Fell, Cumbria, Ingleton, North Yorkshire English No Some formal education Dame school, National School shepherd, railway construction worker, quarry manager Agriculture, Mining, Transportation Teesdale Mercury 1
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Alexander Anderson Alexander Anderson Alexander Anderson Surfaceman male 1845 1909 Kirkconnel, Dumfriesshire Crocketford, Kirkcudbrightshire, Edinburgh Scottish No Some formal education Village school train driver, quarryman, librarian, surfaceman Education, Transportation
Biblio Texts: 
I, 157-68
II, 501-5
4, 342
209 [image], 275-7
X, xviii
79-81, 192-4
Other Analog References: 

Susan Ross, ‘The Poetry of Alexander Anderson, “Surfaceman”, 1845-1909’, PhD dissertation, University of Salford, 2011

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Banks of Bancks John Banks of Bancks male 1709 1751 Sonning, Berkshire Islington, Reading, London English No Some formal education Private education weaver, miscellaneous writer, biographer Textiles crippled or lame, other illness

Banks was placed as an apprentice to a weaver in Reading but before he could complete his apprenticeship he broke his arm, which prevented him from working. (ODNB)

Towards the spring of 1751 Banks's health, which for long had been delicate, visibly deteriorated. He was diagnosed as suffering from a nervous disorder which ultimately proved fatal. He died at his home in Islington on 19 April 1751. (ODNB)

Westminster Journal, Old England Journal
Biblio Texts: 
II, 155-7
Mary Barber Mary Barber female 1685 1755 Death Year Approximated Dublin London, Bath, Tunbridge-Wells Irish No Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain

In 1734 she was arrested ‘for possession of manuscript copies of some of Swift’s political poems attacking Walpole's administration’ (ODNB); she was also accused of (and never cleared for) forging Swift’s signature on a letter about her to Queen Caroline

Gentleman's Magazine
Biblio Texts: 
Item 357 and 107 (image)
Other Analog References: 

Christopher Fanning, ‘The Voices of the Dependent Poet: The Case of Mary Barber’, Women’s Writing, 8, no. 1 (2001), 81-97

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Elizabeth Bentley Portrait of Elizabeth Bentley (1767-1839). From a collection of her poems, Genuine Poetical Compositions, on Various Subjects (Norwich UK, published by subscription, 1791) Elizabeth Bentley female 1767 1839 Norwich English No No formal education Relief Fund

Received support from the Royal Literary Fund

Norwich Chronicle
Biblio Texts: 
54 (letters)
items 68-70, 932
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Blackwell John Blackwell Alun male 1797 1840 Welsh No Good formal education University shoemaker's apprentice, curate, rector Religious Sector, Shoemaking Educational Support

Educated at Jesus College, Oxford, paid for by subscription fund of local gentry and clergy

‘Doli’ [‘Doll’ or ‘Dolly’], ‘Cân Gwraig y Pysgotwr’ [‘Song of a Woman and the Fisherman’] , ‘Abaty Tintern’ [Tintern Abbey]
Other Analog References: 

D. Gwenallt Jones, ‘Alun’, Llên Cymru, I, 4 (1951) 209-19

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Robert Bloomfield Robert Bloomfield, npg d31894 Robert Bloomfield male 1766 1823 Honington, Suffolk City Road, London, Shefford, Bedfordshire English No farmboy, ladies' shoemaker, Aeolian harp-maker Agriculture, Artisanry or Trade, Shoemaking other illness, rheumatism

Suffered from rheumatism and the recurrence of a stomach ailment (ODNB)

Biblio Texts: 
II 208-19
1, 151-72, IX, 19-22 and X, 257
6-9, 15, 20
items 118-24
items 1289-1302
74 (numerous mss and letters)
Other Analog References: 

William Wickett and Nicholas Duval, The Farmer’s Boy, the Story of a Suffolk Poet, Robert Bloomfield, His Life and Poems 1766-1823 (Lavenham: Terence Dalton, 1971)

Jonathan Lawson, Robert Bloomfield (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1980)

Simon White, John Goodridge and Bridget Keegan (eds), Robert Bloomfield: Lyric, Class, and the Romantic Canon (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2006)

Simon White, Robert Bloomfield, Romanticism and the Poetry of Community (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007)

John Goodridge and Bridget Keegan (eds), Robert Bloomfield: The Inestimable Blessing of Letters, online essay collection, Romantic Circles Praxis series (2011)

The Robert Bloomfield Society Newsletter (ongoing, pub. by the Bloomfield Society, founded in 2000)

Johnson, items 486, 754, 840

Tim Fulford, "The Production of a Poet: Robert Bloomfield, His Patrons and His Publishers", in Romantic Poetry and Literary Coteries (Houndmills: Palgrave, 2015), 131-63

Manuscript Information: 

There are important collections of Bloomfield books at NTU and in the BL.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary George Bruce George Bruce male 1825 St Andrews Scottish No 14 joiner's apprentice, engineer, journalist, town councillor, historian, naturalist Government, Publishing, Woodworking Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain Orphan The Battle of Tel-El-Kebir Scots
Biblio Texts: 
I, 217-21
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Robert Burns Robert Burns, Nasmyth Portrait Robert Burns The Ploughman Poet male 1759 1796 cardiac diseases Alloway, Ayr Tarbolton, South Ayrshire, Irvine, North Ayrshire, Edinburgh, Dumfries Scottish Burns resolved to emigrate to Jamaica for an offer of work as a "bookkeeper for Charles Douglas who ran the Springbank estate for his brother, the Earl (?) of Mure" (Wikipedia), but ultimately could not raise the funds for the journey, though the expense prompted him to prepare to publish his first work. No Minimal formal education 14 Village school poet, lyricist, exciseman Agriculture, Government 15 crippled or lame, rheumatism, weakness

"The severe manual labour of the farm left its traces in a premature stoop and a weakened constitution" (Wikipedia); "Burns died at home, in Dumfries, on 21 July 1796, most probably of rheumatic heart disease complicated by bacterial endocarditis" (ODNB)

Burns "was called to do public penance on the stool of repentance (‘the creepy chair’) at Mauchline kirk on 25 June 1786, with further public rebukes on 23 July and on 3 August, when Burns, Jean Armour, and three other fornicators were ‘absolved from scandal’ by the Auld Licht minister, the Revd William (‘Daddy’) Auld (ibid., 39; Mackay, 191). On 22 July Burns had made over his share in Mossgiel and all his property to his brother Gilbert. Jean Armour's father took out a writ for damages against Burns, threatening him with imprisonment. Burns fled towards Kilmarnock, wrote letters to friends about his forthcoming volume of poems, and planned his emigration to Jamaica on 1 September." (ODNB)

freemason, radical

Became a Freemason in 1781 at St. David's Lodge, Tarbolton; degree of radicalism / republicanism under debate

"Address from the genius of Caledonia to His Grace the Duke of Hamilton," 1797?
Biblio Texts: 
I, 349-73
139 (numerous manuscripts, letters)
item 135
items 1325-30
Other Analog References: 

For his relationship to the labouring-class tradition see especially Tim Burke’s introductory essay and bibliography in LC 3, further revised in his Wordsworth edition of Burns and in his essay ‘Labour, Education and Genius’ in Fickle Man: Robert Burns in the 21st Century, ed. Johnny Rodger and Gerard Carruthers (Highland, Scotland: Sandstone Press, 2009), 13-24, and Nigel Leask, ‘Was Burns a Labouring-Class Poet?’, in Blair & Gorji (2012), 16-33 For some examples of the widespread tradition of labouring-class and other poets honouring Burns in verse see ‘Odes on Burns by Local Bards’, in Knox, 328-44.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Campbell (1808-1892) John Campbell Will Harrow, Chartist John male 1808 1892 Kinclaven, Perthshire Glasgow, Dundee, South Africa Scottish South Africa No agricultural laborer, general laborer Agriculture Chartist The Dundee, Perth and Forfar People’s Journal
Biblio Texts: 
3, 164-7
45-6, 81-2, 112-14
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Campbell (1823 - 1897) John Campbell (sketch) John Campbell Ian Cambell, The Ledaig Bard male 1823 1897 Oban, Argyllshire Glasgow, Ledaig Scottish No warehouse worker, postmaster, Sunday school teacher Education, Public Sector, Shopkeeping Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain undefined illness

Returned to Ledaig from Glasgow due to poor health

Biblio Texts: 
6: 35-48
Other Analog References: 

Poems (includes autobiography)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Thomas Chatterton The Death of Chatteron Thomas Chatterton Thomas Rowley, Dunhelmus Bristoliensis, Decimus male 1752 1770 possible suicide, poisoning

Chatterton died at the age of seventeen due to arsenic poisoning; while his death has historically been considered a suicide, this has been strongly contested by recent scholarship (see ODNB below).

On the night of 24 August 1770, the seventeen-year-old Thomas Chatterton died from an accidental overdose of arsenic and opium (laudanum). He was declared non compos mentis and buried in Shoe Lane burying-ground: the ghastly public spectacle made of suicidal remains could be avoided by declaring the deceased insane. Ironically, he was buried under the wrong name, ‘William Chatterton Brook's Street 28’, on 28 August (Meyerstein, 443). He was given a pauper's burial; the bodies were subsequently disinterred from Shoe Lane, the ground levelled and developed, and his final resting place is unknown. Everyone assumed his death was suicide, but from Chatterton's ongoing successes (he had by the time he died published fifty-three pieces and secured a book contract), his finances (Hamilton, for instance, was adamant that ‘he did not die for want’; ibid., 439), and his irrepressibly lusty spirits (in the last letters to Cary and Catcott), the devastating conclusion is that he died simply from unwisely mixing his venereal medicine with his recreational drugs. His end was senseless and tragic, but despite the juggernaut of myth that began almost immediately to roll, obliterating history, this was no proto-Romantic suicide of a starving poet in a friendless garret, his genius cruelly unrecognized.

The archetypal nature of the myth of Chatterton's suicide is almost impossible to deny, and certainly impossible after over two centuries to disentangle from the circumstances of his life, but accidental poisoning remains the most plausible analysis of the scene. Stories abound: that Chatterton fell into a grave shortly before he died, that he ate oysters voraciously with Cross but proudly refused dinner with Mrs Angell, that he was refused a loaf on credit, and the coroner simply reported that he had ‘swallowed arsenick in water, on the 24th of August, 1770; and died, in consequence thereof, the next day’ (Meyerstein, 435). He had bought it from Cross to treat ‘the Foul Disease’, and it has since been forensically established (from a stain on his copybook; see Taylor, ‘Chatterton's suicide’) that he had access to laudanum—and Barrett said that the opium was picked out from between his teeth (Meyerstein, 441). The historical record has, however, been adulterated (for example by John Dix, who fabricated Chatterton's suicidal ‘Last Verses’ and a false inquest report; Meyerstein, 446–8), and profoundly embroidered by elegists, eulogists, poets, artists, and sculptors for more than two centuries. (ODNB)

Bristol London English No Some formal education 5 14 Charity school legal scrivener's apprentice, antiquarian Government Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain 14 Half-orphan

Thomas Chatterton, Sr. "died on 7 August 1752, more than three months before his son Thomas was born." (ODNB)

Biblio Texts: 
Item 152
194 (numerous manuscripts and letters)
Other Analog References: 

The standard biography: E. H. W. Meyerstein, A Life of Thomas Chatterton (1930)

Donald S. Taylor, Thomas Chatterton’s Art: Experiments in Imagined History (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978

Nick Groom (ed), Thomas Chatterton and Romantic Culture (Houndmills: Macmillan, 1999)

Nick Groom, The Forger’s Shadow (London: Picador, 2002)

Daniel Cook, Thomas Chatterton and Neglected Genius 1760-1830 (Houndmills: Palgrave, 2013)

Joseph Bristow and Rebecca Mitchell, Oscar Wilde’s Chatterton (Yale University Press, 2015)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Clare John Clare (1793-1864), Poet John Clare The Northamptonshire Peasant male 1793 1864 apoplexy Helpston, Northamtonshire London, Newark, Northampton, High Beach, Essex English No Dame school, Self-taught (autodidact), Vestry school gardener, militiaman, limeburner, ploughboy, cobbler, stonemason [journeyman], laborer Agriculture, Domestic Sector, Military 14 depression, mental illness, other illness

Clare spent his later years in asylums in Epping Forest and Northampton. At various times, he may have suffered from epilepsy, depression, sleeplessness, nightmares, and venereal disease; he suffered from delusions and at different times imagined himself to be "Robert Burns, Lord Byron, Lord Nelson, and Ben Caunt, the prize-fighter" (ODNB).


Clare spent his later years in asylums in Epping Forest and Northampton

Church of England
Biblio Texts: 
nos. 152-153a
item 19
III, 79
203 (numerous manuscripts and letters)
Other Analog References: 

The standard modern edition is the nine-volume Clarendon Press edition (1984-2003), ed Eric Robinson, David Powell and P.M.S. Dawson; there are also good selections available from Oxford, Penguin, Faber, Carcanet, Everyman, and several other imprints.

The standard biography is Jonathan Bate, John Clare: A Biography (London: Picador, 2003); see also John Clare: By Himself, ed. Eric Robinson and David Powell (Manchester: Carcanet, 1996).

Major studies of Clare include:

  • John Barrell, The Idea of Landscape and the Sense of Place, 1730-1840: An Approach to the Poetry of John Clare (London: Cambridge, University Press 1972)
  • George Deacon, John Clare and the Folk Tradition (London: Sinclair Browne, 1983)
  • Tim Chilcott, ‘a real world and doubting mind’: A Critical Study of the Poetry of John Clare (Hull: Hull University Press, 1985)
  • Johanne Clare, John Clare and the Bounds of Circumstance (Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987)
  • Ronald Blythe, Talking About John Clare (Nottingham: Trent Books, 1999, revised and extended as At Helpston, Norwich: Black Dog Books, 2011)
  • Paul Chirico, John Clare and the Imagination of the Reader (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)
  • Mina Gorji, John Clare and the Place of Poetry (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2009)
  • Sarah Houghton-Walker, John Clare’s Religion (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009)
  • John Goodridge, John Clare and Community (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, 2015)
  • Stephanie Weiner, Clare’s Lyric: John Clare and Three Modern Poets (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014)
  • Sarah Guyer, Reading with John Clare: Biopoetics, Sovereignty, Romanticism (New York: Fordham University Press, 2015)
  • John Goodridge and R.K.R. Thornton, John Clare, The Trespasser (Nottingham: Five Leaves, 2016)

Essay collections include:

  • Hugh Haughton, Adam Phillips and Geoffrey Summerfield (eds), John Clare in Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)
  • John Goodridge (ed), The Independent Spirit: John Clare and the Self-Taught Tradition (Helpston: The John Clare Society, 1994)
  • John Goodridge and Simon Kövesi (eds), John Clare: New Approaches (Helpston: The John Clare Society, 2000)
  • Simon Kövesi and Scott McEathron (eds), New Essays on John Clare: Poetry, Culture and Community (Cambridge University Press, 2015)

Selected creative responses to Clare include:

  • Iain Sinclair, Edge of the Orison: In the Traces of John Clare’s ‘Journey Out of Essex’ (London: Hamish Hamilton, 2005), and associated film and book by Andrew Kötting, By Our Selves (2015)
  • Robert Hamberger, Heading North: John Clare’s Journey out of Essex (Pilton, Somerset: Flarestack Poetry, 2007)
  • Carry Akroyd, ‘of natures powers & spells’: Landscape Change, John Clare and Me (Peterborough: Langford Press, 2009)
  • Adam Foulds, The Quickening Maze (London: Jonathan Cape, 2009)
  • Judith Allnatt, The Poet’s Wife (London: Transworld, 2010)
  • Hugh Lupton, The Ballad of John Clare (Sawtry: Dedalus, 2010)
  • Jeanette Lynes, Bedlam Cowslip: The John Clare Poems (Hamilton, Ontario: Wolsak and Wynn, 2015)
  • See also the Clare images by Carry Akroyd (
John Clavell John Clavell The Highwayman Poet male 1601 1643 Dublin English No highwayman, physician, lawyer Medicine Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain 307
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Collier (c. 1688-c. 1762) Mary Collier female 1688 Birth year approximated 1762 Death Year Approximated Midhurst, Sussex Petersfield, Hampshire, Alton, Loudon, Ayrshire English No No formal education Home school (educated by parent) washerwoman, farmworker, household brewer (itinerant), charwoman, general laborer The Three Wise Sentences, taken from the First Book of Esdras, Ch. III. and IV, Some Remarks of the Author's Life drawn by herself, To a Friend in Affliction, Verses Addressed to Mrs Diby
Biblio Texts: 
94-5 (in 1922 version)
38-40, 56-77
405 and passim
Other Analog References: 

Ferguson, Moira, editor. The Thresher's Labour, Stephen Duck (1736) and The Woman's Labour, Mary Collier (1739). William Andrews Clark Memorial Library/Augustan Reprint Society, 1985.

Landry, Donna. "The Resignation of Mary Collier: Some Problems in Feminist Literary History." The New Eighteenth Century: Theory-Politics-English Literature, edited by Felicity Nussbaum and Laura Brown, Methuen, 1987, pp. 35-8.

Thompson, E.P. and Marian Sugden, editors. The Thresher's Labour by Stephen Duck, The Woman's Labour by Mary Collier, Two Eighteenth Century Poems. The Merlin Press, 1989.

Goodridge, John. Rural Life in Eighteenth-Century English Poetry, Part I. Cambridge University, 1995.

Klaus, H. Gustav. "Mary Collier (1688?-1762)." Notes and Queries, New Series, vol. 47, no. 2, 2000, pp. 201-4.

Christmas, William. "An Emendation to Mary Collier's The Woman's Labour." Notes and Queries, vol. 48, no. 1, March 2001, pp. 35-38.

Thompson, Peggy. "Duck, Collier and the Ideology of Verse Forms." Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, vol. 44, no. 3, 2004, pp. 505-23.

Goodridge, John. "Stephen Duck, The Thresher's Labour and Mary Collier, The Woman's Labour." The Blackwell Companion to Eighteenth-Century Poetry, edited by Christine Gerrard, Blackwell, 2006, pp. 209-22.

Fellers, Kathy G. "A Study in Contrasts: Mary Collier and Mary Leapor's Diverse Contributions to Eighteenth-Century British Laboring-Class Women's Poetry." Dissertation, University of Houston, 2013.

Cochran, Peter, editor. The Farmer's Boy by Robert Bloomfield: A Parallel Text Edition, with The Thresher's Labour by Stephen Duck and The Woman's Labour by Mary Collier. Cambridge Scholars, 2014.

Sheila Rowbotham, Hidden from History (London: Pluto Press, 1974), 24-6

Manuscript Information: 

Mary Chamberlain, Fenwomen (London: Virago, 1975), 10

0 - Mirrors Superlist - No Research Necessary Mary Peach Collier (1799-1858) Mary Peach Collier female 1799 1858 Matlock Belper, Warwickshire, Derby, Duffield, Derbyshire English No housemaid Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain
Biblio Texts: 
Item 205
Other Analog References: 

The biographical facts here listed were largely gathered by two English students from Murray State University, Kentucky, Angie Hatton and Angela Walther, who with their project supervisor Kevin Binfield visited Derbyshire in 2009 to research Mary Peach Collier, as part of a remarkable and pioneering project in recovery research teaching.

C. R. Johnson, Catalog 49 (2006), item 72

Kevin Binfield, ‘Life Study in and beyond Mary Peach Collier’s Poetic Effusions’ in Kevin Binfield and William J. Christmas (eds), Teaching Laboring-Class British Literature of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (New York: Modern Languages Association of America, forthcoming).

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Maria Colling (née Kemp) npg d34035-Mary Maria Colling Mary Maria Colling Kempe Colling female 1805 1853 Tavistock, Devon English No No formal education Self-taught (autodidact) domestic servant
Biblio Texts: 
Item 378
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Thomas Cooper Thomas Cooper Thomas Cooper male 1805 1892 Leicester Gainsborough, Stafford English No No formal education Self-taught (autodidact) shoemaker, schoolteacher, preacher, journalist Education, Religious Sector, Shoemaking

Imprisoned in Stafford gaol for two years following the pottery riots; wrote epic prison poem, The Purgatory of Suicides: A Prison Rhyme (1845)

Baptist, Wesleyan Methodist Chartist Sonnets of the Death of Allen Davenport, by a Brother Bard and Shoemaker.
Biblio Texts: 
X, xiv
172, 175-6
108-12, 159, 189 (1974 edition)
I, 36-7
no. 177
128-9, 150-6
57-9, 127-32
133-7, 331-2
esp. 166-73
146-7, 194
Item 21
76-7, 80-83
240 (numerous manuscripts and letters)
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Joseph Cronshaw Joseph Cronshaw male 1851 1908 Ancoats, Manchester English No barrow-boy, merchant, shoemaker's apprentice Commerce The Wheatsheaf, The Manchester City News, The Burnley Record, The North Cheshire Herald, Cheshire Post Lancastrian (Lancashire)
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Allan Cunningham Allan Cunningham Painting Allan Cunningham The Nithsdale Mason, Hidllan male 1784 1842 paralysis, stroke

"Cunningham had already suffered a paralytic attack in 1839 (presumably some kind of stroke), and he died at his home, 27 Lower Belgrave Place, on 29 October 1842, the day after a second attack." (ODNB)

Keir, Dumfriesshire Scottish No stonemason, miscellaneous writer, editor Artisanry or Trade paralysis, stroke

"Cunningham had already suffered a paralytic attack in 1839 (presumably some kind of stroke), and he died at his home, 27 Lower Belgrave Place, on 29 October 1842, the day after a second attack." (ODNB)

Biblio Texts: 
II, 61-72
X, xvii
192-203, 217
Items 171-4
Items 109, 373, 751
Items 1358-9
269 (numerous manuscripts and letters)
Item 26
Other Analog References: 

The Collected Letters of James Hogg, Volume 1, 1800-1819, ed Gillian Hughes (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), 384, 386

James Hogg, The Queen’s Wake, ed. Douglas S. Mack (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Thomas Mounsey Cunningham Thomas Mounsey (Mouncey) Cunningham male 1776 1834 cholera Culfaud, Kirkcudbright Rotherham, London, King's Lynn, Norfolk, Wiltshire, Cambridge, Dover Scottish No Good formal education 16 Dame school, Village school millwright, chief clerk, engineer Shopkeeping 16 cholera The Scots Magazine, Edinburgh Literary Magazine The Har'st Kirn, The Hills o' Gallowa, The Cambridgeshire Garland, The Unco Grave
Biblio Texts: 
I, 537-40
273 (letters)
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary James Dacres Devlin James Dacres Devlin John Dacres Devlin male 1863 Death Year Approximated London English No shoemaker, journalist Shoemaking Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain

Simon Kövesi has traced Devlin’s notable role in the 1841 campaign to raise support and funding for John Clare, then languishing in an asylum in High Beach, through a series of essays and poems pub. in the English Journal. Kövesi reproduces the poem, ‘A Reflection, on reading the appeal, in behalf of the poet John Clare in the “English Journal” May 15’ (first printed in the Journal, 1, no. 23, 5 June 1841), along with its extended footnote comparing Clare with Robert Burns, Robert Bloomfield and Thomas Chatterton.

radical A Reflection, on reading the appeal, in behalf of the poet John Clare in the “English Journal, The November Primrose

Devlin first essay’s title casts light on his sense of himself as a craftsman: ‘The Trialist; or Head-attempts. By a Hand-Producer, A New Beginning with an Old Name’. Kövesi also describes and quotes from a very significant lost work by Devlin, ‘the first and only book-length poem dedicated to Clare published during his lifetime’, a poem entitled Go to Epping!, pub. by ‘the pre-eminent radical publisher in London, Effingham Wilson’, and now known only through ‘fragments quoted in a review in the Chartist weekly Cleave’s Penny Gazette’ (Kövesi, 2015 , 156).

Biblio Texts: 
Other Analog References: 

Misnamed by Brian Maidment as "John Dacres Devlin" (1987).

Robert Bloomfield, Remains (1824), I, 164

Madeline House, Graham Storey and Kathleen Tillotson (eds), The Pilgrim Edition of the Letters of Charles Dickens, Volume 6 1850-1852 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), 163

Simon Kövesi, ‘John Clare’s deaths: poetry, education and poverty’, in Simon Kövesi and Scott McEathron (eds), New Essays on John Clare: Poetry, Culture and Community (Cambridge University Press, 2015), 8

Simon Kövesi, John Clare: Nature, Criticism and History (Houndmills: Palgrave, forthcoming), conclusion

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Stephen Duck Portrait - npg 4493; stephen duck Stephen Duck The Thresher Poet male 1705 1756 drowning

his death was originally ascribed to natural causes, but it was later rumoured that he committed suicide due to depression

Charlton St. Peter, Wiltshire Windsor, Reading, Byfleet, Surrey English No Minimal formal education 13 Charity school, Self-taught (autodidact) thresher, poet, chaplain, priest Agriculture, Religious Sector 13 The Thresher's Labour, The Shunammite
Biblio Texts: 
II, 219-22 (in 1830 edition)
88-113, 182-91 (in 1831 edition)
Ch. 3, 47-67
I, 30-1, 53
x, 2-21
44, 47-52
17-18, 20-1, 26, 73-95, 122-5
Archives (manuscripts and letters), 331
II, 157-8 (1971 edition)
Other Analog References: 

Davis, Rose Mary. Stephen Duck, the Thresher Poet. University of Maine Press, 1926.

Osborn, James M. "Spence, Natural Genius and Pope." PQ, vol. 45, no. i, Jan. 1966, 123-44.

McGonigle, Peter J. "Stephen Duck and the text of The Thresher's Labour." The Library, 6th ser., vol. iv, 1982, pp. 288-96.

Ferguson, Moira, editor. The Thresher's Labour, Stephen Duck (1736) and The Woman's Labour, Mary Collier (1739). William Andrews Clark Memorial Library/Augustan Reprint Society, 1985.

Thompson, E.P., and Marian Sugden, editors. The Thresher's Labour by Stephen Duck, The Woman's Labour by Mary Collier, Two Eighteenth Century Poems. The Merlin Press, 1989.

Zionkowski, Linda. "Strategies of Containment: Stephen Duck, Ann Yearsley and the Problem of Polite Culture." Eighteenth-Century Life, vol. 13, 1989, pp. 91-108.

Goodridge, John. Rural Life in Eighteenth-Century English Poetry, Part I. Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Keegan, Bridget. "Georgic Transformations and Stephen Duck's 'The Thresher's Labour.'" SEL, vol. 41, no. 3, 2001, pp. 545-62.

Mulholland, James. "'To sing the toils of each revolving year': Song and poetic authority in Stephen Duck's 'The Thresher's Labour.'" SECC, vol. 33, 2004, pp. 153-74.

Thompson, Peggy. "Duck, Collier and the Ideology of Verse Forms." Studies in English Litearture, 1500-1900, vol. 44, no. 3, 2004, pp. 505-23.

Van-Hagen, Steve. "Literary Technique, the Aestheticization of Laboring Experience, and Generic Experimentation in Stephen Duck's The Thresher's Labour." Criticism, vol. 47, no. 4, 2005, pp. 421-50.

Batt, Jennifer. "Stephen Duck and Literary Culture: A Re-evaluation of the 'Thresher's Poet.'" Dissertation, Oxford University, 2008.

For further information on the parodists, see Jennifer Batt.

2 - Low Robert Emery Robert Emery male 1794 1871 Edinburgh Tyneside Scottish No printer, songwriter Arts, Publishing Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain Baggy Nanny, or The Pitman's Frolic, Hydrophobie, or The Quaker and the Skipper Geordie (Tyneside)
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Anne Hearn Mary Anne Hearn Marianne Farningham female 1834 1909 Farningham, Kent Eynsford, Kent, Gravesend, Kent, Northampton, Barmouth, Gwynedd, Bristol English No Minimal formal education 12 housekeeper, teacher, headmistress, editor, writer, Sunday school teacher Domestic Sector, Education 12 Baptist temperance advocate, Salvation Army

She was a keen supporter of the Salvation Army and the temperance movement, and, after hearing Benjamin Waugh relating incidents of parental cruelty, she gave her reluctant approval to the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. (ODNB)

Sunday School Times and Home Educator, Christian World
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Fanny Forrester Fanny Forrester female 1852 1889 Manchester English No dyer Textiles weakness

described by her mother as in "delicate health"

Biblio Texts: 
151, 156-8
Other Analog References: 

Zlotnick, Susan. "Lowly Bards and Incomplete Lyres: Fanny Forrester and the Construction of a Working-Class Woman's Poetic Identity." Victorian Poetry, vol. 36, no. 1, 1998, 17-35.

3 - Medium Georgina Jane Gordon Georgina Jane Gordon female Melbourne, Australia Scotland, Sunderland, Banff Australian, Scottish Highlands of Sutherland daughter of an emigrant farming family who returned to Scotland from Australia when she was when she was three Yes Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain 612
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Janet Thomson Hamilton Janet Hamilton Janet Hamilton Thomson Hamilton female 1795 1873

"[Hamilton] died on 30th October, 1873, aged 78 years. A service was held in the Free Church, Langloan, prior to burial in the Old Monkland Churchyard. On her tombstone are the words 'she being dead yet speaketh' indicates that, through her writing, we can still appreciate the good works of this fine old Christian Woman, who expressed the wish that the line 'A sinner saved by grace' should be engraved on her tombstone" (Monklands;

Langloan Lanarkshire Scottish No No formal education Home school (educated by parent) spinner, embroiderer, tambourer blind

grew blind in last 18 years of life

Relief Fund

bestowed with a £10 grant from the Royal Bounty following a petition to Prime Minister Disraeli

Scottish Calvinist
Biblio Texts: 
1, 248-59
II, 149-51
187, 203-4, 267-8
181-4, 353
255-6, 258
II, 149-151
Other Analog References: 

Shanks, Henry. The peasant poets of Scotland and musings under the beeches. L. Gilbertson Bathgate, 1829, p. 159. (edition available online at

Cunningham, Valentine. The Victorians. Blackwell, 2000.

Breen, Jennifer. Victorian Women Poets. Everyman's Library, 1994.

Findlay, William. ‘Reclaiming Local Literature: William Thom and Janet Hamilton’, The History of Scottish Literature: The Nineteenth Century, ed. Douglas Clifford (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1988), 353-75

McMillan, Dorothy, editor. The Scotswoman at Home and Abroad. Assocation for Scottish Literary Studies, 2000.

Robinson, S.C. Serious Occupation: Literary Criticism by Victorian Women Writers. Broadview Press, 2003.

Wright, J. Janet Hamilton and other papers. Edinburgh, 1889.

Florence S. Boos, ‘Janet Hamilton: Working-class Memoirist and Commentator’, The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Women’s Writing, ed. Glenda Norquay (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), 63-74 and 165-67

Jupiter Hammon Jupiter Hammon male 1711 1806 Death Year Approximated Lloyd Manor, Lloyd Harbor, New York, USA American Slave poet who was never emancipated, Hammon was born in New York and lived in America throughout his life. He was the first African-American writer to be published. No slave
Biblio Texts: 
Other Analog References: 

Phillis Wheatley, Complete Writings, ed. Vincent Carretta (Penguin, 2001), 202-21

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Walter Hampson Walter Hampson male 1864 1932 Normanton, West Yorkshire English No Self-taught (autodidact) engine driver, editor, writer, union official, activist Publishing, Transportation The Original Clock Almanack: in the Yorkshire Dialect, Bob Stubbs Original Comic Yorksher Awmynack

Normanton Past and Present. Listed in the Wakefield library catalog; unpublished.

Yorkshire Hampson was known especially for his humorous prose dialect work: he is ‘our Yorkshire Mark Twain’, writes Moorman. (Superlist)
Biblio Texts: 
xxxvii, 92-4
Other Analog References: 

P. Wood, Walter Hampson 1864-1932. A Brief Study of one of Yorkshire’s most gifted dialect authors and poets (1998, copy in Wakefield library)

Patrick Joyce, Democratic Subjects: The Self and the Social in Nineteenth-Century England (CUP, 1994), 74-5 (this gives further references)

658 A number of sources confuse or merge Hampson’s publications with those of another working-class writer, the Dublin-born writer, socialist, musician and lecturer also named Walter Hampson, who published as ‘Casey’, and whose vital dates appear to closely match those of the poet.
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Elizabeth Herbert Hands Elizabeth Hands Herbert Hands Daphne female 1746 1746 1815 Harbury, Warwickshire Coventry, Allesley, Coventry, West Midlands English No No formal education blacksmith's wife
Biblio Texts: 
No. 192
Item 406
Other Analog References: 

Cynthia Dereli, ‘In Search of a Poet: the life and work of Elizabeth Hands’, Women’s Writing, 8, no. 1 (2001), 169-82

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Susannah Harrison Susannah Harrison female 1752 1784 Ipswich, Suffolk English No Self-taught (autodidact) servant Domestic Sector invalid

permanent invalid from 1772

Biblio Texts: 
414-18, 557
Other Analog References: 

Nancy Cho, ‘“The Ministry of Song”: Unmarried British Women’s Hymn-Writing, 1730-1936’, PhD dissertation, University of Durham, 2007

Keegan, B. "Mysticisms and Mystifications: The Demands of Laboring-Class Religious Poetry." Criticism, vol. 47 no. 4, 2005, pp. 471-491.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Alexander Morrison Hart Alexander Morrison Hart male 1853 Maryhill, Glasgow Scottish No papermill worker, stationery manager Factory 677
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary James Hogg James Hogg The Ettrick Shepherd male 1770 Birth year approximated 1835 illness

"In the autumn of 1835 Hogg fell ill. Jaundice was diagnosed, and as the illness progressed it became clear that there was little hope of his recovery." (ODNB)

Ettrick Hill, Selkirkshire Scottish No Minimal formal education 6 Self-taught (autodidact) shepherd, farmhand, poet, novelist Agriculture 7 other illness

"In the autumn of 1835 Hogg fell ill. Jaundice was diagnosed, and as the illness progressed it became clear that there was little hope of his recovery." (ODNB)

radical, whig, tory

"The Spy nevertheless had various supporters, including James Gray of the Edinburgh high school, with whom Hogg shared Dumfriesshire links. Through Gray, Hogg established contacts with radical whig political circles in Edinburgh. In the early 1810s he also became actively involved in ‘the Forum’, a public debating club that attracted large paying audiences, often several hundred strong; indeed, Hogg for a time received a small salary as secretary of the Forum." (ODNB) "Likewise his new acceptance as an established literary figure helped him to play a significant part in the founding of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine in 1817. ... Hogg already had contacts with tory circles through his friendship with Scott, and from 1817 onwards the tory group of writers associated with Blackwood's were to play an important part in his life. Hogg's dealings with the tory wits were never comfortable or easy (although he shared their interest in the traditions and customs of the old Scottish peasantry)." (ODNB) "Hogg's middle-class audience began to feel increasingly uncomfortable about a subversive strand discernible in the writings of this uncouth farmworker. Hogg, like Burns before him, really believed that 'The rank is but the guinea's stamp, / The Man's the gowd for a' that' (Burns) and his middle-class audience came to have reservations about the way in which this uppity peasant demanded that his social superiors treat him as an equal." (ODNB)

The Spy, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Scots
Biblio Texts: 
I, 173-210; IX, 77-88
I, 446-61
no. 337
items 244-9
461 (numerous manuscripts of poems and letters)
14, 151
Other Analog References: 

Valentina Bold, James Hogg: A Bard of Nature’s Making (Berne: Peter Lang, 2007)

Studies in Hogg and His World (journal, ongoing)

New critical editions of Hogg are available as part of a major multi-volume editorial project led by Edinburgh University Press and University of South Carolina Press:

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Hutton Mary Hutton Taylor female 1794 1831 Wakefield Sheffield English No poetess Arts weakness

When her family moved to London, Mary’s delicate health forced her to remain in Wakefield.

Biblio Texts: 
I, 38
Other Analog References: 

Holland, John. Preface. Sheffield Manor and Other Poems. J. Blackwell, 1831.

Haywood, Ian. The Literature of Struggle: An Anthology of Chartist Fiction. Scolar Press, 1995.

Timney, Meagan. "Mary Hutton and the Development of a Working-class Women's Political Poetics." Victorian Poetry, vol. 49, no. 1, 2011, pp. 127-46.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Ellen Johnston Ellen Johnston female 1835 Birth year approximated 1873 Hamilton, South Lanarkshire Bridgeton, Glasgow, Dundee, Glasgow, Manchester, Belfast Scottish Belfast Worked in Belfast 1857-1859 (ODNB) No Minimal formal education child factory worker, powerloom weaver Factory, Textiles 11 Workhouse (poorhouse)

"She is probably identifiable with the Helen Johnston who died in Barnhill poorhouse, Springburn, Glasgow, on 12 April 1874." (ODNB)

Scots "Like much popular poetry of the time, her poems owed much in form and stylistic character to Robert Burns and the Romantics, and some appear to late twentieth-century taste as rather mawkishly sentimental. Yet Ellen Johnston's most effective poems were those written in dialect." (ODNB)
Biblio Texts: 
II, 525-6
No. 389
191, 354
301-24, 366-90
Other Analog References: 
  • Swindells, Julia, Victorian Writing and Working Women (Polity Press, 1985)
  • H. Gustav Klaus, ‘New Light on Ellen Johnston, “The Factory Girl”’, Notes and Queries, 55, no. 4 (2008), 430-3
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Elizabeth La Mont Elizabeth La Mont Ramsay La Mont Eugene La Mont, E. La Mont, Elisabeth Ramsay, Elizabeth Ramsay female 1821 Edinburgh London, Glasgow Scottish No Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain Widow

Elizabeth's husband, Chartist writer John La Mont, died of consumption in Islington, London in 1844.

Chartist ‘The Land of the Brave and the Free’, Northern Star, 15 August 1840, 7, Universal Liberty--The Chartist Reaction’, Northern Star, 26 September 1840, 3, ‘Thoughts by Moonlight’ Northern Star, 10 October 1840, 3, ‘The Honest Working Man--A Character’, Northern Star 21 August 1841, 3 (re-printed in The Penny Satirist, 30 October 1841), ‘Life’s Dream’, 11 September 1841, 3, ‘The Old Maid’s Scarf’, Chartist Circular, 18 Sept 1841, 436, ‘Lines to a Mother’, Cleave’s Gazette of Variety, 20 August 1842
Biblio Texts: 
152-60, 177
224-5, 337-8
Other Analog References: 

Note: Scheckner, following Kovalev, misattributes her poems to a ‘Eugene La Mont’, alias John La Mont who, as we have seen, was in fact Elizabeth’s husband. Chartist scholarship is much indebted to Margaret Loose for sorting out the misinformation about ‘Eugene’and recovering Elizabeth as an individual, a Chartist and a poet. Use Kovalev, Schnecker sources with caution.

Michael Sanders, ‘Poetic Agency: Metonymy and Metaphor in Chartist Poetry 1838-1852’, Victorian Poetry, 39, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 111-36

0 - Mirrors Superlist - No Research Necessary William Laidlaw William Laidlaw, 1780 - 1845. Steward to Sir Walter Scott and author William Laidlaw male 1779 1845 Yarrow, Selkirkshire Scottish No amanuensis, land steward Agriculture, Publishing Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain Lucy's Flittin'
Biblio Texts: 
II, 35-37
Other Analog References: 

The Collected Letters of James Hogg, Volume 1, 1800-1819, ed Gillian Hughes (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), 460-1

Manuscript Information: 

Text of "Lucy's Flittin'" available from the University of Glasgow

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary William Lane William Lane male 1744 Flackwell-Heath, High Wycombe, Bucks. English No
Biblio Texts: 
Numbers 305-6
Item 524
Item 1427
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Samuel Laycock Samuel Laycock Samuel Laycock male 1826 1893 Marsden, Yorkshire Lancashire English No Minimal formal education 6 9 millworker, cloth hooker, bookseller, librarian, curator Commerce, Factory, Textiles Lancastrian (Lancashire)
Biblio Texts: 
377-9, 398-400, 459-62, 500-1, 506-8, 510-11, 515-16, 547-52 (in 1882 edition)
Other Analog References: 

Laycock, Samuel. Selected Poems. Edited by Glyn Hughes, Ceolfrith Press, 1981.

Jewitt, Llewellynn, editor. The Ballads and Songs of Derbyshire. 1867, pp. 227-30,

Holroyd, Abraham, editor. A Garland of Poetry; by Yorkshire Authors, or relating to Yorkshire. Saltaire, 1873, pp. 98-99,

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Leapor Mary Leapor female 1722 1746 measles Marston St Lawrence, Northants Brackley English No No formal education Home school (educated by parent) maid, housekeeper Domestic Sector measles

Died of measles

Biblio Texts: 
132-5 (in the 1853 edition)
242-3, 249-54
22, 161-83
Other Analog References: 

The Works of Mary Leapor: A Critical Edition. Edited by Richard Greene and Ann Messenger. Oxford University Press, 2003.

Thornton, Barnell, and George Colman. Poems by eminent ladies. Vol. 2, London, 1755, 1757, 1773, 1785.

Noble, Francis, and John Noble, editors.The Muse in a moral humour: being, a collection of agreeable and instructive tales, fables, pastorals &c. By several hands. Vol. 2, London, 1757-8.

Fawkes, Francis, M.A. Woty, and William Woty, editors. The poetical calendar. Containing a collection of scarce and valuable pieces of poetry: With Variety of originals and translations, by the most eminent hands. Intended as a supplement to Mr. Dodsley’s collection. London, 1763.

Fairer, David, and Christine Gerrard, editors. Eighteenth-Century Poetry: An Annotated Anthology. 2nd ed., Wiley Blackwell Press, 2004.

Rumbold, Valerie. "Mary Leapor (1722-46): Menial Labour and Poetic Aspiration." Women and Poetry, 1660-1750, edited by Sarah Prescott and David Shuttleton, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pp. 88-95.

Overton, Bill. "Mary Leapor’s Verse and Genre." Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 34, no. 1, 2015, pp. 19-32.

Young, Sharon. "Visiting the Country House: Generic Innovation in Mary Leapor’s Crumble Hall.Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 34, no. 1, 2015, pp. 51-64.

Christmas, William J. "Lyric Modes: The Soliloquy Poems of Mary Leapor and Ann Yearsley."Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 34, no. 1, 2015, pp. 65-87.

Fairer, David. “ 'Flying atoms in the sightless air': Issues of Coherence and Scale in Leapor and Yearsley." Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 34, no. 1, 2015, pp. 141-62.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Isabella Lickbarrow Isabella Lickbarrow female 1784 1847 tuberculosis (consumption)

"For the rest of her life, Lickbarrow worked unremittingly to generate income, able to publish only when time allowed. The strain took its toll, and she died exhausted, racked by tuberculosis, at the age of 62" (Duncan Wu,

Kendal, Westmorland English No No formal education Home school (educated by parent) Domestic Sector, Education tuberculosis (consumption)

"For the rest of her life, Lickbarrow worked unremittingly to generate income, able to publish only when time allowed. The strain took its toll, and she died exhausted, racked by tuberculosis, at the age of 62" (Duncan Wu,

Unitarian, Quaker
Biblio Texts: 
Item 66
Item 535
Other Analog References: 

Parrish, Constance, and Duncan Wu. "Isabella Lickbarrow: A Romantic Rediscovered." PN Review, vol. 153, Sept.-Oct. 2003, pp. 64-9.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Janet Little Janet Little Richmond The Scotch Milkmaid the Scotch Milkmaid female 1759 1813 stomach cramp

wrote "until her death in 1813 of 'a cramp in the stomach'" (Wikipedia).

Nether Bogside, near Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire Scottish No servant Domestic Sector Scots The parodic appropriation of Standard English through Scottish mimicry is foregrounded within the bilingual text of Little’s Poetical Works.
Biblio Texts: 
174, 210
0 - Mirrors Superlist - No Research Necessary David M'Whirter David M'Whirter male 1883 Isle of Whithorn, Wigtownshire Scottish No agricultural laborer Agriculture
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Daniel MacPherson Daniel MacPherson male 1810 Birth year approximated 1886 Alvie, Badenoch Edinburgh, Tyneside Scottish No servant, police officer, colliery engineer Mining, Public Sector
Biblio Texts: 
10: 26-331
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Thomas MacQueen Thomas MacQueen male 1826 to 1836 Barkip Canada Scottish Canada Edwards, 2, 323-5 includes a ‘Thomas M’Queen’ who d. in 1861, having emigrated to Canada and published 3 vols from 1836-50; possibly the same poet Yes mason [journeyman] Artisanry or Trade
Biblio Texts: 
items 576-8
II - 323-5
I, 35
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Masters Mary Masters female 1694 Birth year approximated 1755 Otley Norwich, Derbyshire English No Minimal formal education Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain
Biblio Texts: 
1, 205-6
634 (letters)
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary William McGonagall William McGonagall William McGonagall "the world’s worst poet", "Sir William Topaz McGonagall, Knight of the White Elephant, Burmah" male 1825 Birth year approximated 1902

"by 1900 he was once again destitute and now old and sickly. [...] He died penniless in 1902 and was buried in an unmarked grave in Greyfriars Kirkyard in Edinburgh" (Wikipedia).

Edinburgh Dundee, London Scottish, Irish No Some formal education Parish school handloom weaver, actor Arts, Textiles autism

"Author Norman Watson speculates in his biography of McGonagall that the poetaster may have been on the 'autism-Asperger's spectrum.' Christopher Hart, writing in The Sunday Times says that this seems 'likely' " (Wikipedia).

The Dundee, Perth and Forfar People’s Journal An Address to Thee Tay Bridge
Biblio Texts: 
no. 467
138-9, 144-5
Other Analog References: 

Henderson, Hamish. "McGonagall the What." Alias McAlias: Writing on Songs, Folk and Literature, Polygon, 1992, pp. 274-94.

Cunningham, Victoria, editor. The Victorians: An Anthology of Poetry and Poetics. Blackwell, 2000, pp. 585-8.

1032 numerous reprints and selections from 1890 to the present day, often sold on the gimmick of his being "the world’s worst poet," while McGonagall’s extraordinary style and cultural potency is parodied or humorously echoed in works by Spike Milligan, Billy Connolly, J.K. Rowling, and Terry Pratchett’s five ‘Tiffany Aching’ novels from The Wee Free Men to The Shepherd’s Crown. Shrewd readings of McGonagall are offered by Henderson and Cunningham, inter alia.
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Christian Milne Christian Milne Ross female 1772 1816 Death Year Approximated Inverness Footdee, Aberdeen, Edinburgh Scottish No servant, sailor's wife Domestic Sector Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain
Biblio Texts: 
Other Analog References: 

Keegan, B. (2002). “The mean Unletter’d—female Bard of Aberdeen!”: The complexities of Christian Milne’s Simple Poems on Simple Subjects. In N. Kushigian & S. Behrendt (Eds.), Scottish women poets of the Romantic period. Alexander Street Press.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary William Vincent Moorhouse William Vincent Moorhouse male 1796 1828 Death Year Approximated 1828 Derbyshire English No thresher Agriculture Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain accident, crippled or lame

lost his left hand by the "bursting of a gun"

Biblio Texts: 
item 634
item 1460 and 1460 (image)
Other Analog References: 

inf. Gary Harrison

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Ebenezer Oliphant Ebenezer Oliphant Poet of the Sport of Curling male 1813 1893 Torphichen, Linlithgowshire Scottish No mason Artisanry or Trade
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Edward Bailey Preston Edward Bailey Preston male 1820 to 1829 1820s English No calligrapher (itinerant) Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain
Other Analog References: 

Clare’s Letters, ed Storey (Oxford, 1985)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Critchley Prince John Critchley Prince John Critchley Prince The Reedmaker Poet male 1808 1866 Manchester Blackburn, Cheshire, Picardy, Mülhausen, Calais, Dover, Paris English No Minimal formal education 9 Faith-based school reedmaker Textiles alcoholism, blind, paralysis, stroke

"John Critchley Prince died at Hyde, in 1866, almost blind and partially paralysed by a stroke suffered shortly after his second marriage" (

Relief Fund

"Various effort were made by well-wishers to help Prince alleviate his poverty and acquire a better living, including several cash grants from the Royal Bounty Fund, but each failed through his addiction to alcohol" (

Baptist Sun Inn Group

leading figure in the "Sun Inn" group--"The Sun Inn, Long Millgate, Manchester,
during the 1840s, the scene of 'poetic soireés' attended by Prince, Rogerson and other local bards" (

The Death of the Factory Child (1841) Lancastrian (Lancashire) "John Critchley Prince (1808-1866) was well known in his prime for his strong dialect verse of the Lancashire cotton working area" (JS,
Biblio Texts: 
(1882 edition) 285, 302, 349-50, 362-3, 366-8, 374-5, 381-2, 390-1, 420, 432-3, 446, 476
X, xiii
(photograph of the poet on the frontispiece), 49-57
141-3, 152-5, 159-60, 163-7, 171-2, 176-8
I, 14
79, 84
98-101, 111-16, 136-7, 191-5. 198-200, 338-44
778 (letters and poems)
item 91
Other Analog References: 

Vicinus, Martha, "Literary Voices of an Industrial Town: Manchester, 1810-70." The Victorian City: Images and Realities, edited by H.J. Dyos and Michael Wolff, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973, pp. 743-5.

Maidment, Brian, and A.S. Crehan. J.C. Prince and "The Death of the Factory Child": A Study in Victorian Working-Class Literature. Manchester Polytechnic, 1978.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Thomas Pringle Thomas Pringle, engraving by William Finden Thomas Pringle male 1789 1834 Blakelaw, near Kelso South Africa Scottish South Africa Emigrated to South Africa in 1820; returned as an ardent abolitionist Yes Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain abolitionist

Emigrated to South Africa, returned as ardent abolitionist. He raised more than 10,000 pounds ‘for the relief of settlers in Albany’ with Some Account of the Present State of the English Settlers in Albany, South Africa (1824).

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Friendship's Offering, or Annual Remembrancer
Biblio Texts: 
II, 100-104
Other Analog References: 

The Collected Letters of James Hogg, Volume 1, 1800-1819, ed Gillian Hughes (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), 377-8, 399-400

Randolph Vigne, Thomas Pringle, South African Poet, Pioneer and Abolitionist (Woodbridge: James Currey, 2012)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Reid (1808-1841/2) John Reid male 1808 1841 Death Year Approximated Paisley, Renfrewshire Constantinople, Hong Kong Scottish Constantinople, Hong Kong "In 1838–9 Reid spent nearly a year in Constantinople. The result was Turkey and the Turks (1840), an unflattering portrait of the Ottoman empire and its inhabitants. The urge to travel prompted him to give up his business in Glasgow in order to edit an English journal and prepare a Chinese dictionary in Hong Kong, where he died in either 1841 or 1842." (ODNB) No teacher, surgeon, bookseller, publisher, religious/historial writer Commerce, Education, Medicine, Publishing Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain Secession Church
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Edward Rushton Edward Rushton Edward Rushton male 1756 1814 paralysis

Rushton died of paralysis on 22 November 1814 at his home on Paradise Street.

Liverpool America, Guinea, Dominica English Sailor on a slave ship, which turned him into an abolitionist Yes Some formal education 6 11 sailor's apprentice, slaver, tavern-keeper, bookseller, educator, reformer, newspaper editor Commerce, Education, Maritime blind, paralysis

partially blind from opthamalia contracted caring for slaves - later regained sight; started the Liverpool School for the Indigent Blind; died of paralysis

radical, abolitionist

In the late 1780s Rushton became a member of a literary and philosophical society – thought to have been the forerunner of William Roscoe and James Currie’s ill-fated radical Debating Society – where the idea of raising funds to offer care for local blind paupers came into effect. The Liverpool School for the Indigent Blind opened in 1791.

Biblio Texts: 
(1882 edition) 339-41, 517-28
Part I, 25, 36
item 784
item 100
Other Analog References: 

The Collected Writings of Edward Rushton. Edited by Paul Baines, Liverpool University Press, 2014.

Clarkson, T. The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament. Vol. I, London, 1808, pp. 292-414.

Anonymous. Sketches of Obscure Poets. London: Cochrane, 1803, pp. 56-71. (via Google Books)

Dykes, E.B. The Negro in English Romantic Thought. Associated Publishers, 1942.

Martin, C.G. "Coleridge, Edward Rushton, and the Cancelled Note to the 'Monody on the Death of Chatterton.' "  Review of English Studies, vol. 17, 1966, pp. 391-492.

Richardson, A., editor. Verse. Pickering and Chatto, 1999.

Magnuson, P. "Coleridge’s Discursive 'Monody on the Death of Chatterton.' " Romanticism on the Net, 2000, 17.

Burke, Tim. " 'Humanity is Now the Pop’lar Cry': Labouring-Class Poets and the Liverpool Slave Trade, 1787-1789." The Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation, vol. 42, no. 3, 2001, pp. 245-63.

Royden, M. "Edward Rushton—Life and times of an 18th Century Radical and the foundation of the Blind School in Liverpool." Mike Royden's Local History Pages, 2001,

Hunter, B. Forgotten Hero: The Life and Times of Edward Rushton. Living History Library, 2002.

Dellarosa, Franca. Talking Revolution: Edward Rushton’s Rebellious Poetics 1782-1814. Liverpool University Press, 2015.

Reference Description: 
In 2014 the 200th anniversary of Rushton’s death on was marked by a ‘City Wide Exhibition’ in Liverpool and a service of thanksgiving (BBC News online). See also John McReery and Thomas Rushton (qqv).
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Scott Mary Scott Scott Taylor Mary Taylor female 1752 Birth year approximated 1793 pregnancy complications

"She died late in her third pregnancy, in 1793, at the age of forty-one" (Wikipedia).

Milborne Port, Somerset English No Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain Protestant, Unitarian, Quaker