Priority Title Image Prefix or Title First Name Middle Name(s) Last Name(s) Suffix Maiden Name Married Name Pseudonym(s) Bardic Name Other Name Gender Sexual Orientation Baptism Year Birth Year Birth Year Approximated Death Year Death Year Approximated Flourished Years Approximated Flourished Years Flourished Dates Description Cause of Death Death Description Birthplace Other Locations Nationality Emigration Emigration Description Transatlantic Formal Education Formal Education Start Age Formal Education End Age Education Types Occupation Industry Laboring-Class Status is Certain Began working at age Disability and Illness Disability and Illness Description Orphaned or Widowed Orphaned or Widowed Description Social Relief Social Relief Description Imprisonment Religion Affiliations Affiliations Description Poetry Collections Periodical Publications Non-poetic Publications Referenced Poem Titles Manuscript Information Dialect Dialect Usage Description References and Sources PoetId Internal Comments
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Caedmon Caedmon male 0680 Whitby English No ploughman, monk Agriculture, Religious Sector Catholic Hymn
Biblio Texts: 
Other Analog References: 

Richard Hamer (ed and trans.), A Choice of Anglo-Saxon verse (London: Faber, 1970)

0 - Mirrors Superlist - No Research Necessary Richard Abbot Richard Abbot male 1818 1904 Burton, Westmorland Galgate, Lancaster, Shap Fell, Cumbria, Ingleton, North Yorkshire English No Some formal education Dame school, National School shepherd, railway construction worker, quarry manager Agriculture, Mining, Transportation Teesdale Mercury 1
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary William Ambrose William Ambrose Emrys male 1813 1873 Bangor Liverpool, London Welsh No Grammar school apprentice draper, shopworker, minister Religious Sector, Shopkeeping, Textiles Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Alexander Anderson Alexander Anderson Surfaceman male 1845 1909 Kirkconnel, Dumfriesshire Crocketford, Kirkcudbrightshire, Edinburgh Scottish No Some formal education Village school train driver, quarryman, librarian, surfaceman Education, Transportation
Biblio Texts: 
I, 157-68
II, 501-5
4, 342
209 [image], 275-7
X, xviii
79-81, 192-4
Other Analog References: 

Susan Ross, ‘The Poetry of Alexander Anderson, “Surfaceman”, 1845-1909’, PhD dissertation, University of Salford, 2011

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary James Stout Angus James Stout Angus male 1830 1923 Catfirth, Nesting, Shetland Lerwick, Shetland Scottish No housewright, joiner, ship's carpenter Woodworking Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain "Eels" Published a glossary of Shetland placenames and a glossary of Shetland dialect
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Bain John Bain male 1859 Maryculter, Aberdeenshire Scottish ploughman Agriculture
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Banks of Bancks John Banks of Bancks male 1709 1751 Sonning, Berkshire Islington, Reading, London English No Some formal education Private education weaver, miscellaneous writer, biographer Textiles crippled or lame, other illness

Banks was placed as an apprentice to a weaver in Reading but before he could complete his apprenticeship he broke his arm, which prevented him from working. (ODNB)

Towards the spring of 1751 Banks's health, which for long had been delicate, visibly deteriorated. He was diagnosed as suffering from a nervous disorder which ultimately proved fatal. He died at his home in Islington on 19 April 1751. (ODNB)

Westminster Journal, Old England Journal
Biblio Texts: 
II, 155-7
Mary Barber Mary Barber female 1685 1755 Death Year Approximated Dublin London, Bath, Tunbridge-Wells Irish No Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain

In 1734 she was arrested ‘for possession of manuscript copies of some of Swift’s political poems attacking Walpole's administration’ (ODNB); she was also accused of (and never cleared for) forging Swift’s signature on a letter about her to Queen Caroline

Gentleman's Magazine
Biblio Texts: 
Item 357 and 107 (image)
Other Analog References: 

Christopher Fanning, ‘The Voices of the Dependent Poet: The Case of Mary Barber’, Women’s Writing, 8, no. 1 (2001), 81-97

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Elizabeth Bentley Elizabeth Bentley female 1767 1839 Norwich English No No formal education Relief Fund

Received support from the Royal Literary Fund

Norwich Chronicle
Biblio Texts: 
54 (letters)
items 68-70, 932
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Blackwell John Blackwell Alun male 1797 1840 Welsh No Good formal education University shoemaker's apprentice, curate, rector Religious Sector, Shoemaking Educational Support

Educated at Jesus College, Oxford, paid for by subscription fund of local gentry and clergy

‘Doli’ [‘Doll’ or ‘Dolly’], ‘Cân Gwraig y Pysgotwr’ [‘Song of a Woman and the Fisherman’] , ‘Abaty Tintern’ [Tintern Abbey]
Other Analog References: 

D. Gwenallt Jones, ‘Alun’, Llên Cymru, I, 4 (1951) 209-19

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Michael Blann Michael Blann male Shoreham-by-Sea, Sussex English shepherd, singer, whistle player Agriculture

A handwritten book of his songs (some original, some by others) from the 1880s is held in the Barclay Wills collection at Worthing Museum.

Other Analog References: 

Colin Andrews, Shepherd of the Downs: The Life and Songs of Michael Blann (1843-1934) (Worthing: Worthing Museum, 1979, 1987), revd third edn with CD of the songs 2008.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Robert Bloomfield Robert Bloomfield male 1766 1823 Honington, Suffolk City Road, London, Shefford, Bedfordshire English No farmboy, ladies' shoemaker, Aeolian harp-maker Agriculture, Artisanry or Trade, Shoemaking other illness, rheumatism

Suffered from rheumatism and the recurrence of a stomach ailment (ODNB)

Biblio Texts: 
II 208-19
1, 151-72, IX, 19-22 and X, 257
6-9, 15, 20
items 118-24
items 1289-1302
74 (numerous mss and letters)
Other Analog References: 

William Wickett and Nicholas Duval, The Farmer’s Boy, the Story of a Suffolk Poet, Robert Bloomfield, His Life and Poems 1766-1823 (Lavenham: Terence Dalton, 1971)

Jonathan Lawson, Robert Bloomfield (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1980)

Simon White, John Goodridge and Bridget Keegan (eds), Robert Bloomfield: Lyric, Class, and the Romantic Canon (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2006)

Simon White, Robert Bloomfield, Romanticism and the Poetry of Community (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007)

John Goodridge and Bridget Keegan (eds), Robert Bloomfield: The Inestimable Blessing of Letters, online essay collection, Romantic Circles Praxis series (2011)

The Robert Bloomfield Society Newsletter (ongoing, pub. by the Bloomfield Society, founded in 2000)

Johnson, items 486, 754, 840

Tim Fulford, "The Production of a Poet: Robert Bloomfield, His Patrons and His Publishers", in Romantic Poetry and Literary Coteries (Houndmills: Palgrave, 2015), 131-63

Manuscript Information: 

There are important collections of Bloomfield books at NTU and in the BL.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary George Pringle Boyd George Pringle Boyd male 1852 Dollar, Clackmannanshire Scottish No shoemaker Shoemaking
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary George Bruce George Bruce male 1825 St Andrews Scottish No 14 joiner's apprentice, engineer, journalist, town councillor, historian, naturalist Government, Publishing, Woodworking Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain Orphan The Battle of Tel-El-Kebir Scots
Biblio Texts: 
I, 217-21
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Robert Burns Robert Burns, Nasmyth Portrait Robert Burns The Ploughman Poet male 1759 1796 cardiac diseases Alloway, Ayr Tarbolton, South Ayrshire, Irvine, North Ayrshire, Edinburgh, Dumfries Scottish Burns resolved to emigrate to Jamaica for an offer of work as a "bookkeeper for Charles Douglas who ran the Springbank estate for his brother, the Earl (?) of Mure" (Wikipedia), but ultimately could not raise the funds for the journey, though the expense prompted him to prepare to publish his first work. No Minimal formal education 14 Village school poet, lyricist, exciseman Agriculture, Government 15 crippled or lame, rheumatism, weakness

"The severe manual labour of the farm left its traces in a premature stoop and a weakened constitution" (Wikipedia); "Burns died at home, in Dumfries, on 21 July 1796, most probably of rheumatic heart disease complicated by bacterial endocarditis" (ODNB)

Burns "was called to do public penance on the stool of repentance (‘the creepy chair’) at Mauchline kirk on 25 June 1786, with further public rebukes on 23 July and on 3 August, when Burns, Jean Armour, and three other fornicators were ‘absolved from scandal’ by the Auld Licht minister, the Revd William (‘Daddy’) Auld (ibid., 39; Mackay, 191). On 22 July Burns had made over his share in Mossgiel and all his property to his brother Gilbert. Jean Armour's father took out a writ for damages against Burns, threatening him with imprisonment. Burns fled towards Kilmarnock, wrote letters to friends about his forthcoming volume of poems, and planned his emigration to Jamaica on 1 September." (ODNB)

freemason, radical

Became a Freemason in 1781 at St. David's Lodge, Tarbolton; degree of radicalism / republicanism under debate

"Address from the genius of Caledonia to His Grace the Duke of Hamilton," 1797?
Biblio Texts: 
I, 349-73
139 (numerous manuscripts, letters)
item 135
items 1325-30
Other Analog References: 

For his relationship to the labouring-class tradition see especially Tim Burke’s introductory essay and bibliography in LC 3, further revised in his Wordsworth edition of Burns and in his essay ‘Labour, Education and Genius’ in Fickle Man: Robert Burns in the 21st Century, ed. Johnny Rodger and Gerard Carruthers (Highland, Scotland: Sandstone Press, 2009), 13-24, and Nigel Leask, ‘Was Burns a Labouring-Class Poet?’, in Blair & Gorji (2012), 16-33 For some examples of the widespread tradition of labouring-class and other poets honouring Burns in verse see ‘Odes on Burns by Local Bards’, in Knox, 328-44.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary William Cameron William Cameron Hawkie male 1787 Birth year approximated 1851 St Ninian's, Stirlingshire Glasgow, Edinburgh Scottish No pedlar, beggar, songwriter, musician (itinerant), fortune teller Publishing Other Housing

"From 1838 he took up winter residence in the Glasgow Town Hospital, where he died on 11 September 1851." (ODNB)

"Street literature is ephemeral, but a few titles ‘printed for William Cameron’ survive in the National Library of Scotland and in Glasgow University Library." (ODNB)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Campbell (1808-1892) John Campbell Will Harrow, Chartist John male 1808 1892 Kinclaven, Perthshire Glasgow, Dundee, South Africa Scottish South Africa No agricultural laborer, general laborer Agriculture Chartist The Dundee, Perth and Forfar People’s Journal
Biblio Texts: 
3, 164-7
45-6, 81-2, 112-14
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Campbell (1823 - 1897) John Campbell (sketch) John Campbell Ian Cambell, The Ledaig Bard male 1823 1897 Oban, Argyllshire Glasgow, Ledaig Scottish No warehouse worker, postmaster, Sunday school teacher Education, Public Sector, Shopkeeping Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain undefined illness

Returned to Ledaig from Glasgow due to poor health

Biblio Texts: 
6: 35-48
Other Analog References: 

Poems (includes autobiography)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Thomas Chatterton Thomas Chatterton Thomas Rowley, Dunhelmus Bristoliensis, Decimus male 1752 1770 possible suicide, poisoning

Chatterton died at the age of seventeen due to arsenic poisoning; while his death has historically been considered a suicide, this has been strongly contested by recent scholarship (see ODNB below).

On the night of 24 August 1770, the seventeen-year-old Thomas Chatterton died from an accidental overdose of arsenic and opium (laudanum). He was declared non compos mentis and buried in Shoe Lane burying-ground: the ghastly public spectacle made of suicidal remains could be avoided by declaring the deceased insane. Ironically, he was buried under the wrong name, ‘William Chatterton Brook's Street 28’, on 28 August (Meyerstein, 443). He was given a pauper's burial; the bodies were subsequently disinterred from Shoe Lane, the ground levelled and developed, and his final resting place is unknown. Everyone assumed his death was suicide, but from Chatterton's ongoing successes (he had by the time he died published fifty-three pieces and secured a book contract), his finances (Hamilton, for instance, was adamant that ‘he did not die for want’; ibid., 439), and his irrepressibly lusty spirits (in the last letters to Cary and Catcott), the devastating conclusion is that he died simply from unwisely mixing his venereal medicine with his recreational drugs. His end was senseless and tragic, but despite the juggernaut of myth that began almost immediately to roll, obliterating history, this was no proto-Romantic suicide of a starving poet in a friendless garret, his genius cruelly unrecognized.

The archetypal nature of the myth of Chatterton's suicide is almost impossible to deny, and certainly impossible after over two centuries to disentangle from the circumstances of his life, but accidental poisoning remains the most plausible analysis of the scene. Stories abound: that Chatterton fell into a grave shortly before he died, that he ate oysters voraciously with Cross but proudly refused dinner with Mrs Angell, that he was refused a loaf on credit, and the coroner simply reported that he had ‘swallowed arsenick in water, on the 24th of August, 1770; and died, in consequence thereof, the next day’ (Meyerstein, 435). He had bought it from Cross to treat ‘the Foul Disease’, and it has since been forensically established (from a stain on his copybook; see Taylor, ‘Chatterton's suicide’) that he had access to laudanum—and Barrett said that the opium was picked out from between his teeth (Meyerstein, 441). The historical record has, however, been adulterated (for example by John Dix, who fabricated Chatterton's suicidal ‘Last Verses’ and a false inquest report; Meyerstein, 446–8), and profoundly embroidered by elegists, eulogists, poets, artists, and sculptors for more than two centuries. (ODNB)

Bristol London English No Some formal education 5 14 Charity school legal scrivener's apprentice, antiquarian Government Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain 14 Half-orphan

Thomas Chatterton, Sr. "died on 7 August 1752, more than three months before his son Thomas was born." (ODNB)

Biblio Texts: 
Item 152
194 (numerous manuscripts and letters)
Other Analog References: 

The standard biography: E. H. W. Meyerstein, A Life of Thomas Chatterton (1930)

Donald S. Taylor, Thomas Chatterton’s Art: Experiments in Imagined History (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978

Nick Groom (ed), Thomas Chatterton and Romantic Culture (Houndmills: Macmillan, 1999)

Nick Groom, The Forger’s Shadow (London: Picador, 2002)

Daniel Cook, Thomas Chatterton and Neglected Genius 1760-1830 (Houndmills: Palgrave, 2013)

Joseph Bristow and Rebecca Mitchell, Oscar Wilde’s Chatterton (Yale University Press, 2015)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Clare John Clare The Northamptonshire Peasant male 1793 1864 apoplexy Helpston, Northamtonshire London, Newark, Northampton, High Beach, Essex English No Dame school, Self-taught (autodidact), Vestry school gardener, militiaman, limeburner, ploughboy, cobbler, stonemason [journeyman], laborer Agriculture, Domestic Sector, Military 14 depression, mental illness, other illness

Clare spent his later years in asylums in Epping Forest and Northampton. At various times, he may have suffered from epilepsy, depression, sleeplessness, nightmares, and venereal disease; he suffered from delusions and at different times imagined himself to be "Robert Burns, Lord Byron, Lord Nelson, and Ben Caunt, the prize-fighter" (ODNB).


Clare spent his later years in asylums in Epping Forest and Northampton

Church of England
Biblio Texts: 
nos. 152-153a
item 19
III, 79
203 (numerous manuscripts and letters)
Other Analog References: 

The standard modern edition is the nine-volume Clarendon Press edition (1984-2003), ed Eric Robinson, David Powell and P.M.S. Dawson; there are also good selections available from Oxford, Penguin, Faber, Carcanet, Everyman, and several other imprints.

The standard biography is Jonathan Bate, John Clare: A Biography (London: Picador, 2003); see also John Clare: By Himself, ed. Eric Robinson and David Powell (Manchester: Carcanet, 1996).

Major studies of Clare include:

  • John Barrell, The Idea of Landscape and the Sense of Place, 1730-1840: An Approach to the Poetry of John Clare (London: Cambridge, University Press 1972)
  • George Deacon, John Clare and the Folk Tradition (London: Sinclair Browne, 1983)
  • Tim Chilcott, ‘a real world and doubting mind’: A Critical Study of the Poetry of John Clare (Hull: Hull University Press, 1985)
  • Johanne Clare, John Clare and the Bounds of Circumstance (Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987)
  • Ronald Blythe, Talking About John Clare (Nottingham: Trent Books, 1999, revised and extended as At Helpston, Norwich: Black Dog Books, 2011)
  • Paul Chirico, John Clare and the Imagination of the Reader (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)
  • Mina Gorji, John Clare and the Place of Poetry (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2009)
  • Sarah Houghton-Walker, John Clare’s Religion (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009)
  • John Goodridge, John Clare and Community (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, 2015)
  • Stephanie Weiner, Clare’s Lyric: John Clare and Three Modern Poets (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014)
  • Sarah Guyer, Reading with John Clare: Biopoetics, Sovereignty, Romanticism (New York: Fordham University Press, 2015)
  • John Goodridge and R.K.R. Thornton, John Clare, The Trespasser (Nottingham: Five Leaves, 2016)

Essay collections include:

  • Hugh Haughton, Adam Phillips and Geoffrey Summerfield (eds), John Clare in Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)
  • John Goodridge (ed), The Independent Spirit: John Clare and the Self-Taught Tradition (Helpston: The John Clare Society, 1994)
  • John Goodridge and Simon Kövesi (eds), John Clare: New Approaches (Helpston: The John Clare Society, 2000)
  • Simon Kövesi and Scott McEathron (eds), New Essays on John Clare: Poetry, Culture and Community (Cambridge University Press, 2015)

Selected creative responses to Clare include:

  • Iain Sinclair, Edge of the Orison: In the Traces of John Clare’s ‘Journey Out of Essex’ (London: Hamish Hamilton, 2005), and associated film and book by Andrew Kötting, By Our Selves (2015)
  • Robert Hamberger, Heading North: John Clare’s Journey out of Essex (Pilton, Somerset: Flarestack Poetry, 2007)
  • Carry Akroyd, ‘of natures powers & spells’: Landscape Change, John Clare and Me (Peterborough: Langford Press, 2009)
  • Adam Foulds, The Quickening Maze (London: Jonathan Cape, 2009)
  • Judith Allnatt, The Poet’s Wife (London: Transworld, 2010)
  • Hugh Lupton, The Ballad of John Clare (Sawtry: Dedalus, 2010)
  • Jeanette Lynes, Bedlam Cowslip: The John Clare Poems (Hamilton, Ontario: Wolsak and Wynn, 2015)
  • See also the Clare images by Carry Akroyd (www.carryakroyd.co.uk).
John Clavell John Clavell The Highwayman Poet male 1601 1643 Dublin English No highwayman, physician, lawyer Medicine Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain 307
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Collier (c. 1688-c. 1762) Mary Collier female 1688 Birth year approximated 1762 Death Year Approximated Midhurst, Sussex Petersfield, Hampshire, Alton, Loudon, Ayrshire English No No formal education Home school (educated by parent) washerwoman, farmworker, household brewer (itinerant), charwoman, general laborer The Three Wise Sentences, taken from the First Book of Esdras, Ch. III. and IV, Some Remarks of the Author's Life drawn by herself, To a Friend in Affliction, Verses Addressed to Mrs Diby
Biblio Texts: 
94-5 (in 1922 version)
38-40, 56-77
405 and passim
Other Analog References: 

Ferguson, Moira, editor. The Thresher's Labour, Stephen Duck (1736) and The Woman's Labour, Mary Collier (1739). William Andrews Clark Memorial Library/Augustan Reprint Society, 1985.

Landry, Donna. "The Resignation of Mary Collier: Some Problems in Feminist Literary History." The New Eighteenth Century: Theory-Politics-English Literature, edited by Felicity Nussbaum and Laura Brown, Methuen, 1987, pp. 35-8.

Thompson, E.P. and Marian Sugden, editors. The Thresher's Labour by Stephen Duck, The Woman's Labour by Mary Collier, Two Eighteenth Century Poems. The Merlin Press, 1989.

Goodridge, John. Rural Life in Eighteenth-Century English Poetry, Part I. Cambridge University, 1995.

Klaus, H. Gustav. "Mary Collier (1688?-1762)." Notes and Queries, New Series, vol. 47, no. 2, 2000, pp. 201-4.

Christmas, William. "An Emendation to Mary Collier's The Woman's Labour." Notes and Queries, vol. 48, no. 1, March 2001, pp. 35-38.

Thompson, Peggy. "Duck, Collier and the Ideology of Verse Forms." Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, vol. 44, no. 3, 2004, pp. 505-23.

Goodridge, John. "Stephen Duck, The Thresher's Labour and Mary Collier, The Woman's Labour." The Blackwell Companion to Eighteenth-Century Poetry, edited by Christine Gerrard, Blackwell, 2006, pp. 209-22.

Fellers, Kathy G. "A Study in Contrasts: Mary Collier and Mary Leapor's Diverse Contributions to Eighteenth-Century British Laboring-Class Women's Poetry." Dissertation, University of Houston, 2013.

Cochran, Peter, editor. The Farmer's Boy by Robert Bloomfield: A Parallel Text Edition, with The Thresher's Labour by Stephen Duck and The Woman's Labour by Mary Collier. Cambridge Scholars, 2014.

Sheila Rowbotham, Hidden from History (London: Pluto Press, 1974), 24-6

Manuscript Information: 

Mary Chamberlain, Fenwomen (London: Virago, 1975), 10

0 - Mirrors Superlist - No Research Necessary Mary Peach Collier (1799-1858) Mary Peach Collier female 1799 1858 Matlock Belper, Warwickshire, Derby, Duffield, Derbyshire English No housemaid Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain
Biblio Texts: 
Item 205
Other Analog References: 

The biographical facts here listed were largely gathered by two English students from Murray State University, Kentucky, Angie Hatton and Angela Walther, who with their project supervisor Kevin Binfield visited Derbyshire in 2009 to research Mary Peach Collier, as part of a remarkable and pioneering project in recovery research teaching.

C. R. Johnson, Catalog 49 (2006), item 72

Kevin Binfield, ‘Life Study in and beyond Mary Peach Collier’s Poetic Effusions’ in Kevin Binfield and William J. Christmas (eds), Teaching Laboring-Class British Literature of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (New York: Modern Languages Association of America, forthcoming).

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Maria Colling (née Kemp) Mary Maria Colling Kempe Colling female 1805 1853 Tavistock, Devon English No No formal education Self-taught (autodidact) domestic servant
Biblio Texts: 
Item 378
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Thomas Cooper Thomas Cooper Thomas Cooper male 1805 1892 Leicester Gainsborough, Stafford English No No formal education Self-taught (autodidact) shoemaker, schoolteacher, preacher, journalist Education, Religious Sector, Shoemaking

Imprisoned in Stafford gaol for two years following the pottery riots; wrote epic prison poem, The Purgatory of Suicides: A Prison Rhyme (1845)

Baptist, Wesleyan Methodist Chartist Sonnets of the Death of Allen Davenport, by a Brother Bard and Shoemaker.
Biblio Texts: 
X, xiv
172, 175-6
108-12, 159, 189 (1974 edition)
I, 36-7
no. 177
128-9, 150-6
57-9, 127-32
133-7, 331-2
esp. 166-73
146-7, 194
Item 21
76-7, 80-83
240 (numerous manuscripts and letters)
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Joseph Cronshaw Joseph Cronshaw male 1851 1908 Ancoats, Manchester English No barrow-boy, merchant, shoemaker's apprentice Commerce The Wheatsheaf, The Manchester City News, The Burnley Record, The North Cheshire Herald, Cheshire Post Lancastrian (Lancashire)
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Allan Cunningham Allan Cunningham The Nithsdale Mason, Hidllan male 1784 1842 paralysis, stroke

"Cunningham had already suffered a paralytic attack in 1839 (presumably some kind of stroke), and he died at his home, 27 Lower Belgrave Place, on 29 October 1842, the day after a second attack." (ODNB)

Keir, Dumfriesshire Scottish No stonemason, miscellaneous writer, editor Artisanry or Trade paralysis, stroke

"Cunningham had already suffered a paralytic attack in 1839 (presumably some kind of stroke), and he died at his home, 27 Lower Belgrave Place, on 29 October 1842, the day after a second attack." (ODNB)

Biblio Texts: 
II, 61-72
X, xvii
192-203, 217
Items 171-4
Items 109, 373, 751
Items 1358-9
269 (numerous manuscripts and letters)
Item 26
Other Analog References: 

The Collected Letters of James Hogg, Volume 1, 1800-1819, ed Gillian Hughes (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), 384, 386

James Hogg, The Queen’s Wake, ed. Douglas S. Mack (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Thomas Mounsey Cunningham Thomas Mounsey (Mouncey) Cunningham male 1776 1834 cholera Culfaud, Kirkcudbright Rotherham, London, King's Lynn, Norfolk, Wiltshire, Cambridge, Dover Scottish No Good formal education 16 Dame school, Village school millwright, chief clerk, engineer Shopkeeping 16 cholera The Scots Magazine, Edinburgh Literary Magazine The Har'st Kirn, The Hills o' Gallowa, The Cambridgeshire Garland, The Unco Grave
Biblio Texts: 
I, 537-40
273 (letters)
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary James Dacres Devlin James Dacres Devlin John Dacres Devlin male 1863 Death Year Approximated London English No shoemaker, journalist Shoemaking Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain

Simon Kövesi has traced Devlin’s notable role in the 1841 campaign to raise support and funding for John Clare, then languishing in an asylum in High Beach, through a series of essays and poems pub. in the English Journal. Kövesi reproduces the poem, ‘A Reflection, on reading the appeal, in behalf of the poet John Clare in the “English Journal” May 15’ (first printed in the Journal, 1, no. 23, 5 June 1841), along with its extended footnote comparing Clare with Robert Burns, Robert Bloomfield and Thomas Chatterton.

radical A Reflection, on reading the appeal, in behalf of the poet John Clare in the “English Journal, The November Primrose

Devlin first essay’s title casts light on his sense of himself as a craftsman: ‘The Trialist; or Head-attempts. By a Hand-Producer, A New Beginning with an Old Name’. Kövesi also describes and quotes from a very significant lost work by Devlin, ‘the first and only book-length poem dedicated to Clare published during his lifetime’, a poem entitled Go to Epping!, pub. by ‘the pre-eminent radical publisher in London, Effingham Wilson’, and now known only through ‘fragments quoted in a review in the Chartist weekly Cleave’s Penny Gazette’ (Kövesi, 2015 , 156).

Biblio Texts: 
Other Analog References: 

Misnamed by Brian Maidment as "John Dacres Devlin" (1987).

Robert Bloomfield, Remains (1824), I, 164

Madeline House, Graham Storey and Kathleen Tillotson (eds), The Pilgrim Edition of the Letters of Charles Dickens, Volume 6 1850-1852 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), 163

Simon Kövesi, ‘John Clare’s deaths: poetry, education and poverty’, in Simon Kövesi and Scott McEathron (eds), New Essays on John Clare: Poetry, Culture and Community (Cambridge University Press, 2015), 8

Simon Kövesi, John Clare: Nature, Criticism and History (Houndmills: Palgrave, forthcoming), conclusion

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Jeanie Donnan Jeanie Donnan Jeanie Donnan female 1864 1942 Gatehouse of Fleet, Kirkcudbrightshire Whithorn Scottish Some formal education 12 Faith-based school, Self-taught (autodidact) Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain

Reverend Donald M. Henry remarks that Donnan was a member of the Literary Church Guild (Hameland, Introduction, x).

Hameland: The Poems of Jeanie Donnan , War Poems, The Hills o’ Hame Galloway Gazette "Callin' Me Back", "Back Tae the Hameland"

There are archives of her work held in the Ewart Library, Dumfries, and Broughton House Library, Kirkcudbright.

Scots, Scottish English Her poems mix Scottish dialect with a standardized "poetic" English. In a "Prefatory Note," her ‘neighbour’ Herbert Maxwell invokes John Barbour’s fourteenth-century historical poem "The Brus" to place Donnan in an unbroken Scottish vernacular tradition. Her poems mix Scottish dialect with a standardized "poetic" English, and include much local material, some melodrama and sentiment, elegies, and poems which reply or respond to requests, with little asides or sub-headings giving a strong sense of a community of writers and readers, no doubt the legacy of her Galloway Gazette writing. The subscription list tells us that her unpretentious vernacular verse remained of widespread interest both regionally and throughout the Scottish diaspora. The Hameland volume of 1907 evidences the popularity of her verses in its impressive, 14-page list of subscribers. It is headed by the Earl of Galloway, but dominated by ordinary folk, mainly local subscribers from the Whithorn area, but also significant numbers of subscribers from far and wide: Cardiff, the English cities, Australia, South Africa and the United States.
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Stephen Duck Stephen Duck The Thresher Poet male 1705 1756 drowning

his death was originally ascribed to natural causes, but it was later rumoured that he committed suicide due to depression

Charlton St. Peter, Wiltshire Windsor, Reading, Byfleet, Surrey English No Minimal formal education 13 Charity school, Self-taught (autodidact) thresher, poet, chaplain, priest Agriculture, Religious Sector 13 The Thresher's Labour, The Shunammite
Biblio Texts: 
II, 219-22 (in 1830 edition)
88-113, 182-91 (in 1831 edition)
Ch. 3, 47-67
I, 30-1, 53
x, 2-21
44, 47-52
17-18, 20-1, 26, 73-95, 122-5
Archives (manuscripts and letters), 331
II, 157-8 (1971 edition)
Other Analog References: 

Davis, Rose Mary. Stephen Duck, the Thresher Poet. University of Maine Press, 1926.

Osborn, James M. "Spence, Natural Genius and Pope." PQ, vol. 45, no. i, Jan. 1966, 123-44.

McGonigle, Peter J. "Stephen Duck and the text of The Thresher's Labour." The Library, 6th ser., vol. iv, 1982, pp. 288-96.

Ferguson, Moira, editor. The Thresher's Labour, Stephen Duck (1736) and The Woman's Labour, Mary Collier (1739). William Andrews Clark Memorial Library/Augustan Reprint Society, 1985.

Thompson, E.P., and Marian Sugden, editors. The Thresher's Labour by Stephen Duck, The Woman's Labour by Mary Collier, Two Eighteenth Century Poems. The Merlin Press, 1989.

Zionkowski, Linda. "Strategies of Containment: Stephen Duck, Ann Yearsley and the Problem of Polite Culture." Eighteenth-Century Life, vol. 13, 1989, pp. 91-108.

Goodridge, John. Rural Life in Eighteenth-Century English Poetry, Part I. Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Keegan, Bridget. "Georgic Transformations and Stephen Duck's 'The Thresher's Labour.'" SEL, vol. 41, no. 3, 2001, pp. 545-62.

Mulholland, James. "'To sing the toils of each revolving year': Song and poetic authority in Stephen Duck's 'The Thresher's Labour.'" SECC, vol. 33, 2004, pp. 153-74.

Thompson, Peggy. "Duck, Collier and the Ideology of Verse Forms." Studies in English Litearture, 1500-1900, vol. 44, no. 3, 2004, pp. 505-23.

Van-Hagen, Steve. "Literary Technique, the Aestheticization of Laboring Experience, and Generic Experimentation in Stephen Duck's The Thresher's Labour." Criticism, vol. 47, no. 4, 2005, pp. 421-50.

Batt, Jennifer. "Stephen Duck and Literary Culture: A Re-evaluation of the 'Thresher's Poet.'" Dissertation, Oxford University, 2008.

For further information on the parodists, see Jennifer Batt.

4 - High Pierce Egan Pierce Egan male 1772 1849 London English No printer, compositor, journalist 1815
2 - Low Robert Emery Robert Emery male 1794 1871 Edinburgh Tyneside Scottish No printer, songwriter Arts, Publishing Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain Baggy Nanny, or The Pitman's Frolic, Hydrophobie, or The Quaker and the Skipper Geordie (Tyneside)
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Fanny Forrester Fanny Forrester female 1852 1889 Manchester English No dyer Textiles weakness

described by her mother as in "delicate health"

Biblio Texts: 
151, 156-8
Other Analog References: 

Zlotnick, Susan. "Lowly Bards and Incomplete Lyres: Fanny Forrester and the Construction of a Working-Class Woman's Poetic Identity." Victorian Poetry, vol. 36, no. 1, 1998, 17-35.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary George Gibson George Gibson Bell Geordie male 1806

Buried in the High Kirk burial ground.

Glasgow Scottish city bellman, beggar Public Sector blind Glasgow Mercury, Glasgow Courier
Biblio Texts: 
Other Analog References: 

Ian Crofton, A Dictionary of Scottish Phrase and Fable (2012)

Peter Mackenzie, Glasgow Characters (1857)

3 - Medium Georgina Jane Gordon Georgina Jane Gordon female Melbourne, Australia Scotland, Sunderland, Banff Australian, Scottish Highlands of Sutherland daughter of an emigrant farming family who returned to Scotland from Australia when she was when she was three Yes Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain 612
0 - Mirrors Superlist - No Research Necessary Oliver Grindall Oliver Grindall male 1810 to 1827 Hull English coast-waiter Maritime Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain

No published poems are currently known, but there is a manuscript book of poems in the British Library, a gift of the American scholar T. O. Mabbott: ‘Trifles in Verse on Moral and Religious Subjects by Oliver Grindall...Hull, 1827’ described as ‘autograph fair copy of verses composed 1810-1821, n.d., with some autogr[aph] corrections and notes’. BL Add. MS 44967; his two letters to Clare are in BL Egerton MS 2245, ff. 283, 370.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Janet Thomson Hamilton Janet Hamilton Janet Hamilton Thomson Hamilton female 1795 1873

"[Hamilton] died on 30th October, 1873, aged 78 years. A service was held in the Free Church, Langloan, prior to burial in the Old Monkland Churchyard. On her tombstone are the words 'she being dead yet speaketh' indicates that, through her writing, we can still appreciate the good works of this fine old Christian Woman, who expressed the wish that the line 'A sinner saved by grace' should be engraved on her tombstone" (Monklands; http://monklands.co.uk/janethamilton/index.htm).

Langloan Lanarkshire Scottish No No formal education Home school (educated by parent) spinner, embroiderer, tambourer blind

grew blind in last 18 years of life

Relief Fund

bestowed with a £10 grant from the Royal Bounty following a petition to Prime Minister Disraeli

Scottish Calvinist
Biblio Texts: 
1, 248-59
II, 149-51
187, 203-4, 267-8
181-4, 353
255-6, 258
II, 149-151
Other Analog References: 

Shanks, Henry. The peasant poets of Scotland and musings under the beeches. L. Gilbertson Bathgate, 1829, p. 159. (edition available online at https://archive.org/details/peasantpoetssco00shangoog).

Cunningham, Valentine. The Victorians. Blackwell, 2000.

Breen, Jennifer. Victorian Women Poets. Everyman's Library, 1994.

Findlay, William. ‘Reclaiming Local Literature: William Thom and Janet Hamilton’, The History of Scottish Literature: The Nineteenth Century, ed. Douglas Clifford (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1988), 353-75

McMillan, Dorothy, editor. The Scotswoman at Home and Abroad. Assocation for Scottish Literary Studies, 2000.

Robinson, S.C. Serious Occupation: Literary Criticism by Victorian Women Writers. Broadview Press, 2003.

Wright, J. Janet Hamilton and other papers. Edinburgh, 1889.

Florence S. Boos, ‘Janet Hamilton: Working-class Memoirist and Commentator’, The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Women’s Writing, ed. Glenda Norquay (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), 63-74 and 165-67

Jupiter Hammon Jupiter Hammon male 1711 1806 Death Year Approximated Lloyd Manor, Lloyd Harbor, New York, USA American Slave poet who was never emancipated, Hammon was born in New York and lived in America throughout his life. He was the first African-American writer to be published. No slave
Biblio Texts: 
Other Analog References: 

Phillis Wheatley, Complete Writings, ed. Vincent Carretta (Penguin, 2001), 202-21

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Walter Hampson Walter Hampson male 1864 1932 Normanton, West Yorkshire English No Self-taught (autodidact) engine driver, editor, writer, union official, activist Publishing, Transportation The Original Clock Almanack: in the Yorkshire Dialect, Bob Stubbs Original Comic Yorksher Awmynack

Normanton Past and Present. Listed in the Wakefield library catalog; unpublished.

Yorkshire Hampson was known especially for his humorous prose dialect work: he is ‘our Yorkshire Mark Twain’, writes Moorman. (Superlist)
Biblio Texts: 
xxxvii, 92-4
Other Analog References: 

P. Wood, Walter Hampson 1864-1932. A Brief Study of one of Yorkshire’s most gifted dialect authors and poets (1998, copy in Wakefield library)

Patrick Joyce, Democratic Subjects: The Self and the Social in Nineteenth-Century England (CUP, 1994), 74-5 (this gives further references)

658 A number of sources confuse or merge Hampson’s publications with those of another working-class writer, the Dublin-born writer, socialist, musician and lecturer also named Walter Hampson, who published as ‘Casey’, and whose vital dates appear to closely match those of the poet.
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Elizabeth Herbert Hands Elizabeth Hands Herbert Hands Daphne female 1746 1746 1815 Harbury, Warwickshire Coventry, Allesley, Coventry, West Midlands English No No formal education blacksmith's wife
Biblio Texts: 
No. 192
Item 406
Other Analog References: 

Cynthia Dereli, ‘In Search of a Poet: the life and work of Elizabeth Hands’, Women’s Writing, 8, no. 1 (2001), 169-82

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Susannah Harrison Susannah Harrison female 1752 1784 Ipswich, Suffolk English No Self-taught (autodidact) servant Domestic Sector invalid

permanent invalid from 1772

Biblio Texts: 
414-18, 557
Other Analog References: 

Nancy Cho, ‘“The Ministry of Song”: Unmarried British Women’s Hymn-Writing, 1730-1936’, PhD dissertation, University of Durham, 2007

Keegan, B. "Mysticisms and Mystifications: The Demands of Laboring-Class Religious Poetry." Criticism, vol. 47 no. 4, 2005, pp. 471-491.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Alexander Morrison Hart Alexander Morrison Hart male 1853 Maryhill, Glasgow Scottish No papermill worker, stationery manager Factory 677
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Anne Hearn Mary Anne Hearn Marianne Farningham female 1834 1909 Farningham, Kent Eynsford, Kent, Gravesend, Kent, Northampton, Barmouth, Gwynedd, Bristol English No Minimal formal education 12 housekeeper, teacher, headmistress, editor, writer, Sunday school teacher Domestic Sector, Education 12 Baptist temperance advocate, Salvation Army

She was a keen supporter of the Salvation Army and the temperance movement, and, after hearing Benjamin Waugh relating incidents of parental cruelty, she gave her reluctant approval to the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. (ODNB)

Sunday School Times and Home Educator, Christian World
Biblio Texts: 
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary James Hogg James Hogg The Ettrick Shepherd male 1770 Birth year approximated 1835 illness

"In the autumn of 1835 Hogg fell ill. Jaundice was diagnosed, and as the illness progressed it became clear that there was little hope of his recovery." (ODNB)

Ettrick Hill, Selkirkshire Scottish No Minimal formal education 6 Self-taught (autodidact) shepherd, farmhand, poet, novelist Agriculture 7 other illness

"In the autumn of 1835 Hogg fell ill. Jaundice was diagnosed, and as the illness progressed it became clear that there was little hope of his recovery." (ODNB)

radical, whig, tory

"The Spy nevertheless had various supporters, including James Gray of the Edinburgh high school, with whom Hogg shared Dumfriesshire links. Through Gray, Hogg established contacts with radical whig political circles in Edinburgh. In the early 1810s he also became actively involved in ‘the Forum’, a public debating club that attracted large paying audiences, often several hundred strong; indeed, Hogg for a time received a small salary as secretary of the Forum." (ODNB) "Likewise his new acceptance as an established literary figure helped him to play a significant part in the founding of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine in 1817. ... Hogg already had contacts with tory circles through his friendship with Scott, and from 1817 onwards the tory group of writers associated with Blackwood's were to play an important part in his life. Hogg's dealings with the tory wits were never comfortable or easy (although he shared their interest in the traditions and customs of the old Scottish peasantry)." (ODNB) "Hogg's middle-class audience began to feel increasingly uncomfortable about a subversive strand discernible in the writings of this uncouth farmworker. Hogg, like Burns before him, really believed that 'The rank is but the guinea's stamp, / The Man's the gowd for a' that' (Burns) and his middle-class audience came to have reservations about the way in which this uppity peasant demanded that his social superiors treat him as an equal." (ODNB)

The Spy, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Scots
Biblio Texts: 
I, 173-210; IX, 77-88
I, 446-61
no. 337
items 244-9
461 (numerous manuscripts of poems and letters)
14, 151
Other Analog References: 

Valentina Bold, James Hogg: A Bard of Nature’s Making (Berne: Peter Lang, 2007)

Studies in Hogg and His World (journal, ongoing)

New critical editions of Hogg are available as part of a major multi-volume editorial project led by Edinburgh University Press and University of South Carolina Press: https://edinburghuniversitypress.com/james-hogg.html

0 - Mirrors Superlist - No Research Necessary John Holland John Holland male 1794 1872 Sheffield English Minimal formal education Self-taught (autodidact) poet, editor, Sunday school teacher Education, Publishing Laboring-Class Status: Uncertain Sheffield Iris, Sheffield Mercury
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Mary Hutton Mary Hutton Taylor female 1794 1831 Wakefield Sheffield English No poetess Arts weakness

When her family moved to London, Mary’s delicate health forced her to remain in Wakefield.

Biblio Texts: 
(via archive.org)
I, 38
Other Analog References: 

Holland, John. Preface. Sheffield Manor and Other Poems. J. Blackwell, 1831.

Haywood, Ian. The Literature of Struggle: An Anthology of Chartist Fiction. Scolar Press, 1995.

Timney, Meagan. "Mary Hutton and the Development of a Working-class Women's Political Poetics." Victorian Poetry, vol. 49, no. 1, 2011, pp. 127-46.

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary William Hutton William Hutton William Hutton male 1723 1815 Derby Southwell, Birmingham English No Minimal formal education 5 7 silk weaver, stocking weaver, shopman, historian, autobiographer, paper factory owner Factory, Publishing, Textiles 7 Unitarian 2013
1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary Joseph Jenkins Joseph Jenkins Amnon II male 1818 1898 Tregaron, Ceredigion Australia, Castlemaine, Victoria, Australia, Ballarat, Australia, Melbourne, Australia Welsh Australia At the age of 51, Jenkins left his home and large family to travel to Australia and seek a new life. He returned to Wales in 1894. Yes Some formal education Faith-based school farmer, swagman, laborer (itinerant), street cleaner Agriculture Unitarian
Other Analog References: 

Phillips, Bethan, Pity the Swagman (Cymdeithas Lifrau Ceredigion Gyf., Aberystwyth 2002)

1 - Mirrors Superlist - Additional Research Necessary John Jenkins John Jenkins Cerngoch male 1825 1894 Welsh sailor Maritime “The Lost Sailor”’ (‘Y Morwr Colledig’) 2024